Troy -- The capital of Troas, so called from a king of that name, on the west of Asia Minor, situated on a small eminence near Mount Ida, about four miles from the sea coast. Its war was the most celebrated in ancient times. (See Introduction). [u1.html#g1]
Ithaca -- One of the Ionian Islands, off the west coast of Greece, and separated from the larger island of Cephalonia by a channel three or four miles wide. It is twelve miles long by four broad. The home of Ulysses was on a precipitous cliff situated on a narrow isthmus connecting the two parts of the island. This "eagle cliff" is pronounced to be about as bleak and dreary a spot as can well be imagined for a princely residence. [u1.html#g1]
Calypso -- One of the Oceanides, or sea nymphs, who dwelt in Ogygia, an island of doubtful existence, and whose position is unknown. Here Ulysses was shipwrecked, and remained for seven years. These nymphs could protect or injure sailors; hence sacrifices and prayers were offered to them. [u1.html#g1]
Circe -- The daughter of Sol, the Sun, celebrated for her knowledge of magic and poisons. She murdered her husband, the Prince of Colchis, a country east of the Euxine or Black Sea, and, being banished from the kingdom, was carried to the island of Ææa, off the coast of Italy, where Ulysses, allured by her, remained a year. [u1.html#g1]
Cicons -- A people of Thrace, that part of modern Turkey between the Balkan Mountains and the Archipelago, who assisted the Trojans against the Greeks. [u1.html#g2]
Ismarus -- The chief town of the Cicons, situated on a mountain of the same name, celebrated for its wine. [u1.html#g2]
Malea -- A cape at the end of the promontory in the Morea, lying between the gulfs of Nauplia and Laconia. The sea round it being so rough, it was much dreaded by sailors. [u1.html#g3]
Cythera -- An island off the south coast of Greece near Cape Malea, now called Cerigo. It was particularly sacred to the goddess Venus, who sprung from the foam of the sea, near its coast, according to some traditions, and who was hence called Cytheræa. [u1.html#g3]
lotos-tree -- [lotus] This name was given to various plants whose fruit or berry was used for food, and from which wine was also made. The lotophagi, or lotos-eaters, were a peaceful people, who dwelt on the coast of Libya, in the north of Africa. The fable of strangers eating the fruit of the lotos, and forgetting their native country, was a common one in ancient times. Tennyson wrote a short poem on "The Lotos-Eaters," in "A land where all things seem'd the same," and where he who received of the lotos fruit and tasted it-- [u1.html#g3]
"To him the gushing of the wave
Far, far away did seem to mourn and rave
On alien shores; and if his fellow spake,
His voice was thin, as voices from the grave;
And deep-asleep he seem'd, yet all awake,
And music in his heart his beating heart did make."
hatches -- The lid, cover, or frame of cross-bars laid over the hatchway or opening of a ship's deck. "Under the hatches" means to be confined below, under the deck. [u1.html#g3]
Cyclops -- Creatures with round eyes. (Gr. kyklopes = kyklos, a circle, and ops an eye.) They had but one great round eye in the centre of the forehead, and hence their name. According to Homer they inhabited Sicily, and were a lawless race of shepherds, and cannibals, or human flesh-eaters, without any knowledge of law or order, living separately with their families in caverns among the mountains. They cared nothing for the gods, and deemed themselves their superior in strength. They were also supposed to have made the lightning and thunderbolts of Jupiter, and to have assisted Vulcan, whose workshops were volcanoes, in making armour for the gods and heroes. The ancients considered that great and massive unhewn stone walls and fortresses were their work; and hence the term "cyclopian" applied to walls and structures of which history has left us little or no account. [u1.html#g4]
outlandish -- Rude, barbarous. Originally, foreign, as "outlandish women," Nehemiah xiii. 26. From A-S. utlaendisc, out, and land. [u1.html#g5]
Greek wine -- wine was known to the Greeks from the earliest times. It was extracted from the ripe grape and from the raisin. The valleys, mountain slopes, and islands of their country were celebrated for the vine. When the wine was made it was drunk fresh, or, after cleansing by various methods and straining, it was preserved in skins. That used by Ulysses would be kept in a goat-skin, pitched over to keep the seams tight. It was given to him by the priest of Apollo at Ismarus, and was so precious that none knew of it there but himself, wife, and the keeper of it. [u1.html#g5]
flagon -- A vessel with a narrow mouth used for holding liquors. It was larger than a bottle, and made of leather or earthenware. Fr. flacon. [u1.html#g5]
monster -- A thing to be wondered at; something of an unnatural size or shape; anything horrible. Lat. monstrum, from monstrare, to show; originally an omen; something unlucky; hence an unnatural or evil thing, a monster. [u1.html#g5]
Polyphemus -- The Son of Neptune and the nymph Thoosa. He dwelt in a cave on Mount Etna. [u1.html#g5]
Neptune -- Called Poseidon by the Greeks, was brother of Jupiter and Pluto, and ruled the sea in which he generally dwelt. He rode over it in a chariot, made of a shell, drawn either by winged horses, with brazen hoofs and golden manes, or by dolphins. It became smooth at his approach, whilst the whales and other monsters of the deep sported round him. He carried a trident or triple-pointed spear, made by the Cyclops, with which he shook the earth, called forth storms, or shattered rocks. He sided with the Greeks against Troy, but Ulysses incurred his anger for the injury inflicted on his son Polyphemus. [u1.html#g5]
Agamemnon -- The grandson of Atreus, but according to Homer the son, king of Mycenæ, and the most powerful prince in Greece. He led the expedition, and brought 100 ships against Troy. He is the most majestic figure among the Greek chiefs, and one of the bravest in the field. After the fall of Troy he returned with the captive princess Cassandra, daughter of Priam; but they were killed by his wife Clytemnestra and his cousin Ægisthus. [u1.html#g7]
Atreus -- Son of Pelops, grandson of Tantalus, and king of Mycenæ. The history of the house of Atreus was exceedingly tragic, and gave material for some of the finest works of the tragic Greek poets. [u1.html#g7]
Jove -- Jupiter, the Greek Zeus. He was saved from destruction by his mother, as Saturn, his father, devoured all his male children. She took him to Mount Ida in Crete, where he was fed on the milk of a goat. When a year old he released his father who was imprisoned by the Titans. Saturn afterwards conspired against him, was driven from his kingdom, and Jupiter divided his dominions with his brothers, Pluto and Neptune. Jupiter was "sire of gods and men," the fountain of law and order, the avenger of wrongs, the dispenser of awards and punishments. [u1.html#g7]
heartening -- (From heart.) Encouraging, animating, emboldening. [u1.html#g14]
threshold -- The plank or stone underlying a door at the entrance of a house or other building; hence the entrance itself. O.-E. threswold; from A-S. threscan, to thresh, and wold wood, the word literally meaning a piece of wood for threshing on. [u1.html#g1]
ambiguous -- See later note [ambiguously delivered] [u1.html#g15]
made knots of osier twigs -- Knotted the osier twigs together. Osier is the water-willow whose twigs are used in making baskets. Fr. osier. [u1.html#g15]
execrable rout. -- Hateful, or detestable rabble, or crowd. [u1.html#g16]
"Which that abhorr'd man
No-Man did put out,
Assisted by his execrable rout."
bark. -- Any small vessel. Fr. barque. [u1.html#g17]
ebb -- A reflux or flowing backward. The wave raised by the rock bore back the ship to the shore. [u1.html#g17]
Laertes -- Father of Ulysses and king of Ithaca. He ceded the kingdom to his son, and was alive when Ulysses returned from Troy. [u1.html#g17]
waster of cities -- [u1.html#g17]
"City racer," "city ruiner."
Æolus -- According to Homer, he was ruler of the Æolian Islands (the Lipari), north-east of Sicily, to whom was given dominion over the winds. He invented sails, taught the art of navigation, and the nature of the winds, and in later times was regarded as a god and king of the winds which he kept enclosed in a mountain. [u1.html#g17]
western wind -- Zephyrus, the west wind, was the son of Aurora, the goddess of the morning, and was said to produce flowers and fruits by the sweetness of his breath. Any mild gentle breeze is poetically called a zephyr. [u1.html#g18]
As zephyrs blowing below the violet."
SHAKESPERE, Cymbeline, iv. 2.
tracked -- A nautical term meaning drawn by a line, or towed; hence sailed with difficulty. [u1.html#g19]
passport -- Originally a permission to sail from, or into, a port or harbour. Fr. passeport, from passer, to pass, and port. [u1.html#g20]
avaunt -- Begone, depart. Fr. avant. [u1.html#g20]
"Avaunt, and quickly quit my land of thee,
Thou worst of all that breathe. It fits not me
To convoy, and take in, whom heavens expose.
Away, and with thee go the worst of woes.
That seek'st my friendship, and the gods thy foes."
convoy -- To conduct, to escort, or bring on the way for protection. Fr. convoyer, from Lat, con, and via way. [u1.html#g20]
will have perish, -- will, or determine, that they should perish. [u1.html#g20]
Lamos -- Lamus, the capital of the country of the Læstrygones; so called after their king of that name, the son of Neptune. [u1.html#g22]
Læstrygonians -- The Læstrygonians, the most ancient inhabitants of Sicily, were a savage race of cannibals of gigantic stature, who dwelt in the east or north coast. They destroyed eleven of Ulysses' ships, and he escaped with but one. [u1.html#g22]
Antiphas -- Antiphates, King of the Læstrygones. [u1.html#g22]
harpoon -- A spear or javelin thrown by hand, used to kill large fish. Fr. harpon. [u1.html#g22]
"They were, like fishes, by the monsters slain
And borne to sad feast."
Ææa -- A mythical island to the west of Italy, so-called from an island and a town in Colchis. (See Circe) [u2.html#g1]
"Then to the isle Ææa we attain'd
Where fair-haired, dreadful, eloquent Circe reigned."
Eurylochus -- The companion of Ulysses. He was prudent at the house of Circe, but not so when they came to the Triangular island, where he slew the sacred oxen of Apollo, and was in consequence shipwrecked. [u2.html#g2]
Before her gate -- This sentence is loosely written: for "as" read "such as;" and for "of," read "from being," or "though." [u2.html#g3]
ramped -- Ramp means to spring, or bound, or paw, standing on the hind legs. Fr. ramper, to creep. [u2.html#g3]
"So on these men, the wolves and lions ramp'd,
Their horrid paws set up."
loom -- A frame of wood in which cloth is woven. Old Eng. lame. [u2.html#g3]
Smyrna -- A seaport of Nonia, and one of the most ancient and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. It is beautifully situated on a gulf of the same name, and the mountain slopes and fertile valley near it produced rich grapes from which its celebrated wine was made. It was, and continues to be, a great centre of trade between Europe and Asia. It stood highest in its claims as being the birth-place of Homer. [u2.html#g3]
sorceries -- Enchantments; witchcrafts. Old Fr. sorcerie, from Lat. sors, sortis, a lot, fate, destiny. [u2.html#g3]
mast -- The fruit of the beech or other forest tree. [u2.html#g3]
"Oak-mast and beech, and kernel fruit they eat."
apparition -- An unexpected appearance. Lat. apparitio. [u2.html#g7]
Mercury -- The Greek Hermes, son of Jupiter. He was the herald or messenger of the gods, and was the god of eloquence, since heralds had to speak in important assemblies; hence the tongues of animals were offered to him in sacrifice. He invented the lyre, the reed pipe, the alphabet, and many other things. He was very cunning and skilful, and was the god of thieves. He is represented with wings on his hat and feet, carrying in his hand his caduceus, a rod entwined by two serpents, given to him by Apollo. He favoured the Greeks at Troy. [u2.html#g7]
moly -- This was a fabulous plant, of mysterious power, having a black root and white blossom, given by Mercury, and by which Ulysses was able to counteract the magic spells of Circe as here described. Milton refers to this in Comus, 1. 636: [u2.html#g7]
"Yet more med'cinal is it than that moly
That Hermes (Mercury) once to wise Ulysses gave."
clouted -- Patched, or mended with leather or other material. From A-S. clut, a little cloth, a patch. "And old shoes and clouted upon their feet." --Joshua, ix. 5. [u2.html#g7]
blight -- The word is generally applied to those diseases in plants which cause the whole or part to wither and decay, whether arising from insects, fungi, or bad weather. [u2.html#g7]
mildew -- A powdery growth, or minute fungi on plants, fruits, leather, or other things, diseased or decaying. A. -S. meledeaw, honeydew; probably from the sticky honey-like appearance of some kinds of blight. [u2.html#g7]
charming-rod -- A rod used by wizards or magicians in exercising magical or supernatural powers. Moses and the magicians cast their rods before Pharaoh, and they became serpents. [u2.html#g3]
Fates -- The Fates, or Parcæ, were three in number--Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. Clotho, the youngest, presided over birth, holding a distaff in hand; Lachesis held the spindle, and spun out the events and actions; and Atropos, the eldest, held a shears, and cut the threads of human life. They exercised vast power, and were subject to none of the gods except Jupiter, and, according to some, not even to him. [u2.html#g8]
Styx -- The principal river in the nether world, which flowed round it seven times. It was called after Styx, the daughter of Oceanus, because she brought her children to Jupiter to assist him against the Titans. The most solemn oaths were sworn by her, and when one of the gods took such an oath, Iris fetched a cup of water from the Styx, and the god poured it out while taking the oath. If the oath was violated, Jupiter compelled the foresworn to drink of the Styx, and he was rendered senseless or oblivious for a year. [u2.html#g9]
daughters to ... fountains, &c. -- The nymphs were a very numerous class of divinities, and may be divided into nymphs of the water and nymphs of the land. Of the former there were Oceanides and Nereides of the sea, and Naiades of rivers, lakes and springs. There were several classes of the latter--the Dryades presiding over woods. They were young and beautiful maidens, and were worshipped by the ancients, though not so solemnly as the greater deities. (See Calypso) [u2.html#g9]
"Four handmaids served her there,
That daughters to her silver fountains were,
To her bright sea-observing sacred floods,
And to her uncut consecrated woods."
aromatic -- A fragrant plant or drug, a perfume, or agreeable odour. Gr. apomatikos [u2.html#g9]
regale -- A princely or magnificent feast. Fr. regal. [u2.html#g9]
metamorphosis -- A Greek word meaning change of form or shape; from meta, beyond, over, and morpho, shape. [u2.html#g9]
Hades -- Or Pluto, the god of the nether regions. He was son of Saturn and brother of Jupiter and Neptune, and obtained the kingdom of hell in the division of the world among the brothers. He was fierce and inexorable, and kept the gates of the lower world closed, that no spirits might return to earth. His abode being dark and gloomy, the goddesses refused to marry him, so he carried away Proserpine, daughter of Ceres, making a passage through the earth, and she became his queen. He wore a helmet made by the Cyclops which rendered him invisible, and he is described as sitting on a throne of sulphur, with his wife Proserpine, and the dog Cerberus at his feet. In later times the name Hades was transferred to his kingdom, the house of death. [u2.html#g11]
Tiresias -- The most celebrated soothsayer in ancient times who abode in Thebes. He lived to a very great age, and was blind from his seventh year. Some say that Jupiter bestowed on him the gift of prophecy, and permitted him to live for seven or nine generations of men. Others consider that Minerva gave him the power of understanding the voices of birds, and a staff with which he could walk as safely as with his eyesight. During his life he was an infallible oracle to all Greece. He is said to have met his death by drinking the cold water of a fountain. In the lower world Homer gives him his prophetic power, and brings Ulysses to him for counsel. [u2.html#g11]
poplar -- A tree of very rapid growth. Its wood is soft, and there are several kinds, as the black, the aspen, &c. Old Fr. poplier; Lat. populus, the poplar. [u2.html#g11]
willows pale -- The willow is poetically associated with sorrow and woe. Chapman has "Tall firs and sallows (willows) that their fruits soon loose." [u2.html#g11]
Prosperpine -- The daughter of Ceres, the goddess of earth. As she was gathering flowers, according to the Latin writers, in the fields of Sicily, Pluto appeared through the earth, and carried her to the infernal regions, where she became his wife and queen of hell. Her mother, disconsolate at her loss, searched the world for her for nine days. The Sun revealed to her where her daughter was, and she appealed to Jupiter for redress; but Prosperpine could not return, as she had eaten a pomegranate given by Pluto. She was allowed, however, to spend part of the year with her mother and the remainder with Pluto. She was universally worshipped by the ancients as the majestic queen of the souls of the dead. (See Hades) [u2.html#g11]
Pyriphlegethon, Cocytus, Acheron -- Three rivers of hell. The two latter were rivers in Epirus, and were supposed to be connected with the lower regions, and hence they came to be described as being in the lower world. Homer makes Cocytus a tributary or branch of the Styx. [u2.html#g11]
cubit -- A measure of about 18 inches, taken from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. Lat. cubitum from cubare to lie down, the elbow being used for leaning upon. [u2.html#g11]
Triangular island -- Trinacra, Trinacria, the ancient name of Sicily; "the three-forked island" (Chapman), so called from its shape. The earliest inhabitants were the Cyclops and Læstrygones. It was celebrated for its corn, and sacred to Ceres. Here Helios (in later times identified with Apollo), the God of the Sun, kept his sacred herds of oxen, attended by his daughter. He gave light to gods and men. Rising in the East from Oceanus, he traversed the heavens with chariot and horses, and descended into Oceanus in the West. He saw and heard all things, and his worship in Greece existed from very early times. [u2.html#g12]
ambiguously delivered -- Having a doubtful or uncertain meaning. Lat. ambiguus, from ambigere to wander about with irresolute or uncertain mind. Lamb departs slightly here from his original. Tiresias' prophecy was not ambiguous. He warned Ulysses strongly against touching the oxen of the Sun; that by force or cunning he should with slaughter free his house of all the spoilers; after which he should make another voyage, and offer special sacrifice to Neptune to appease his anger. [u2.html#g13]
Alcmena -- Daughter of Electryon, King of Mycenæ, and mother of Hercules by Jupiter. [u2.html#g15]
Hercules -- The most celebrated of all the ancient heroes, and whose deeds were known throughout the old world. Jupiter announced on the day of his birth a hero would be born who would rule over the race of Perseus. Juno contrived that Eurystheus, grandson of Perseus, should be born first, to whom Hercules became subject. He served him for twelve years, and executed what are known as the twelve labours of Hercules, being fully supplied with arms by favour of the gods. He performed many other great deeds, and when he died was immortalized and worshipped as a god. [u2.html#hg15]
Leda... Tyndarus -- Leda was the wife of Tyndarus, King of Sparta, and mother of Castor and Clytemnestra by him, and Pollux and Helen by Jupiter. When Castor and Pollux were received among the immortals, Tyndarus surrendered the kingdom to Menelaus. [u2.html#g15]
Helen -- The daughter of Jupiter and Leda, and the most beautiful woman of her time. When a child she was carried away by Theseus to Attica, but was recovered by her brothers, Castor and Pollux, and brought back to Sparta. She was sued by all the great Greek princes (see Introd.), and married Menelaus. During the Trojan War she sympathised with the Greeks, but married Deiphobus, the brother of Paris, on his death in the 9th year, and betrayed him to the Greeks on the fall of the city. She became reconciled to Menelaus, and returned with him to Sparta, and survived him. Various accounts are given of her death, after which she was honoured as a goddess. [u2.html#g15]
Castor and Pollux -- (See Leda). Castor was skilled in the management of horses, and Pollux in boxing and wrestling. They were the patron deities of mariners, and Jupiter is said to have placed them among the stars as Gemini (the Twins). Castor was killed in a quarrel, and Pollux, being immortal, through grief at the loss of his brother, asked Jupiter either to take away his life or grant immortality to Castor. Jupiter gave him permission to share his fate and live alternatively with him, one day in the lower world and the other among the gods. [u2.html#g15]
Iphimedeia -- wife of the giant Aloeus, and mother of Otus and Ephialtes by Neptune. [u2.html#g15]
Otus and Ephialtes -- Usually called Aloidæ from their reputed father Aloeus. When nine years old they were 9 cubits in breadth and 37 in height, and threatened the gods with war. They would have accomplished this, according to Homer, if they had reached manhood: [u2.html#g15]
"But Jove's son (Apollo) deprived
Their limbs of life, before the age that begins
The flower of youth, and should adorn their chins."
Ossa -- A mountain in Thessaly, connected with Pelion, and separated from Olympus by the Vale of Tempe, which was an act of Hercules, according to some traditions. It and Pelion were once the home of the Centaurs, a race half man and half horse. [u2.html#g15]
Olympus -- The eastern part of the chain of mountains, running west and east, that formed the boundary of ancient Greece. It is 9,700 feet high, and covered with perpetual snow. It was the home of the gods, where they were shut in by a wall of clouds, the Horæ or Hours, goddesses of the seasons, keeping the gates. There was no rain, or wind, but an eternal spring existed. [u2.html#g15]
Pelion -- Also a lofty mountain in Thessaly. The attempt made by the giants was to place Ossa on the slope of Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa, so as to scale the top of Olympus and reach the abode of the gods. Pelion was covered with woods, and here the wood of the spear of Achilles was cut down, which none but himself could wield. [u2.html#g15]
striplings -- Strip, and the diminutive ending ling, as being a small strip from the main stem. Hence a youth or growing boy. "Inquire thou whose son this stripling is." 1 Sam. xvii. 56. [u2.html#g15]
Phædra -- Daughter of Minos, King of Crete, and wife of Theseus. She falsely accused her step-son, Hippolytus, and he was banished by his father. His horses were frightened by a sea-monster sent ashore by Neptune, and he was trampled beneath their feet, and crushed to death under his chariot wheels. Phædra, at his tragic fate, confessed her wickedness, and hung herself in despair. [u2.html#g15]
Procris -- Daughter of Erechtheus, King of Athens, and wife of Cephalus. They loved each other with much affection, but Procris, fearing the love that Aurora had for her husband, watched him jealously when he went out hunting, and was accidentally killed by him with an unerring spear, given to her by the goddess Diana. [u2.html#g15]
Ariadne and Theseus -- Ariadne was daughter of Minos, King of Crete. Theseus was a celebrated hero of ancient Greece, desirous of emulating Hercules. He was the son of Ægeus, King of Athens. Minos tyrannously exacted yearly seven chosen youths and seven maidens from the Athenians, to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, a terrible monster which he kept confined in a labyrinth. Theseus went as one of the youths, and assisted by Ariadne, who fell in love with him, he killed the Minotaur, and escaped by a clue of thread through the windings of the labyrinth. He carried Ariadne along with him, but according to Homer, she was killed on the island of Naxos by Diana. On approaching Athens he neglected to hoist the white sail which was to have been the signal of the success of his enterprise, and his father, thinking he had failed and was lost, cast himself into the sea, and hence the name Ægean Sea. [u2.html#g15]
Eriphyle -- Wife of Amphiarus, a hero of Argos, who hid himself that he might not accompany an expedition, celebrated as the "Seven against Thebes," knowing that those engaged in it would be killed. Eriphyle, bribed by a golden necklace, discovered where her husband was. He commanded his son to murder his mother on hearing of his death. When this was known, the injunction was obeyed, and Eriphyle was murdered by her son. [u2.html#g15]
That honour'd gold more than she loved her spouse."
Ægisthus -- Son of Thyestes, and nephew of Atreus. The latter brought him up as a son, but Ægisthus murdered Atreus because he ordered him to slay his father. He aided Clytemnestra in the murder of her husband, Agamemnon; but they were afterwards murdered themselves by her son Orestes. [u2.html#g17]
training me forth -- Leading, or drawing along, in a solemn manner. [u2.html#g17]
Clytemnestra -- Daughter of Tyndarus and Leda, and wife of Agamemnon. She was false to her husband while he was at Troy, and on his return, assisted by Ægisthus, she murdered him either at a feast prepared to celebrate his return, according to Homer, or as he was coming out from his bath. (See Ægisthus and Agamemnon.) [u2.html#g18]
cast a foul aspersion -- Cast foul slander or censure, like sprinkling a body with foul water. From Lat. aspergere, to sprinkle, or scatter. [u2.html#g18]
Icarius, Penelope -- Icarius was a Lacedemonian, and brother of Tyndraus, and father of Penelope. There were many suitors for her hand, and Ulysses is said to have won her in a foot-race. (See also Introd.) Icarius wished them to remain with him, and, on Ulysses' refusal, appealed to Penelope, who blushed and covered her face with her veil, intimating her desire to follow Ulysses. Icarius erected a statue to modesty on the spot where she then stood. Tormented by the suitors during the absence of Ulysses at Troy, she delayed them by promising to declare her decision when she had finished a robe she was weaving for her father-in-law, Laertes, and undid at night the work done during the day. Homer speaks highly of her:-- [u2.html#g20]
"Exceedingly wise she is, and wise in good,
Icarius' daughter, chaste Penelope."
Telemachus -- Son of Ulysses and Penelope. He went in search of his father towards the close of his wanderings, visiting the courts of Nestor and Menelaus, accompanied by Minerva under the form of Mentor, and, returning to Ithaca, found him, and assisted in the slaughter of the suitors. [u2.html#g20]
Orestes -- (See Ægisthus and Clytemnestra.) After the murder of his mother, Orestes was tormented by the Furies, but was purified by Apollo. After many adventures he became King of Mycenæ and Argos, and married Hermione, daughter of Menelaus, she having first, it is said, murdered her husband Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. He died at an advanced age by the bite of a serpent. [u2.html#g20]
fame -- Rumour or public report. Lat. fama. "The fame thereof was heard in Pharoah's house" -Gen. xlv. 16. [u2.html#g20]
Orchomen -- An ancient and wealthy city in Boeotia, on the river Cephissus, containing a celebrated temple to the Graces. It was very powerful at the time of the Trojan War. [u2.html#g20]
Pylus -- There were three towns of this name which have been disputed as being the city of which Nestor was king. The Pylos on the Bay of Navarino, on the promontory west of the Gulf of Koron, seems to have the best claim. [u2.html#g20]
Sparta -- Also called Lacedæmon, the chief city of Peloponnesus, was situated on the Eurotas, twenty miles from the sea. It was founded by Lacedæmon, son of Jupiter, who married Sparta, and named the city after her, who was daughter of Eurotas, after whom the river was called. Here Menelaus was king, and on the marriage of his daughter Hermione with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, the kingdoms of Sparta and Argos were united. The city stood on a plain, shut in on the east and west by mountains, and was six miles in circumference. Its inhabitants were renowned for their bravery, their discipline and valour in war, their love of liberty, and their aversion to idleness and luxury. They reared their children with great austerity, and a Spartan mother would slay her son if he brought shame on his country through cowardice, or honour with a festival his death as a hero. [u2.html#g20]
Achilles -- Son of Peleus, King of the Myrmidons in Thessaly and the Nereid Thetis. His mother, in order to render him immortal, dipped him in the Styx, and succeeded in all parts of the body except the heel by which she held him. He led the Myrmidons, and brought 50 ships against Troy. He was the handsomest and bravest of all the Greeks. In the ninth year of the war he quarrelled with Agamemnon concerning a captive, and retired from the siege in anger. Homer's Iliad commences with this incident. He permitted his friend Patroclus to take his place in the combat and to wear his armour, and he being killed by Hector, Achilles rejoined the Greeks, having received new armour from Vulcan. He killed Hector, tied the body to his chariot, and dragged it round the walls of the city in sight of the Trojans. He fell at the Scæan gate, pierced in the heel by an arrow shot by Paris, but directed by the hand of Apollo. [u2.html#g1]
Thetis -- One of the fifty Nereides, daughters of Nereus, and wife of Peleus. Her wedding was honoured by the attendance of all the gods except Discord, who threw an apple amongst them, with the words "to the fairest" written on it, which gave rise to so much misery to the Greeks and Trojans. (See Introd. and Achilles) [u2.html#g23]
Peleus -- King of the Myrmidons in Thessaly, and grandson of Jupiter, husband of Thetis, the only one among mortals who married an immortal. He was one of the Argonauts, but was too old to accompany to Troy his son Achilles, whose death he survived. [u2.html#g24]
Neoptolemus -- Son of Achilles, brought up at the court of his grandfather, Lycomedes the King of Scyros, from whence Ulysses fetched him, and where he before had found Achilles in woman's attire among the daughters of the king. Neoptolemus fought with great bravery, and killed Priam at the taking of the city. He married Hermione, daughter of Menelaus, on his return to Greece, but was soon after killed by her or Orestes, and was buried at Delphi. [u2.html#g24]
Scyros -- An island in the Ægean Sea, east of Negropont. Here Thetis concealed Achilles to save him from the fate that awaited him at the Siege of Troy. [u2.html#g25]
conceit -- Quickness in understanding and seeing the meaning of things; active imagination. Lat. conceptus. "There's no more conceit in him than is in a mallet." 2 Hen. IV., ii. 4. [u2.html#g25]
Ajax -- Son of Telamon, King of Salamis. He brought twelve ships against Troy, and was second only to Achilles in bravery and all the heroic qualities. On the death of Achilles he contended unsuccessfully with Ulysses for his armour, which Homer here gives as the cause of his death. Rushing from his tent in a fit of madness he slew the sheep of the Greek camp, think they were his enemies, and then took his own life. The blood that flowed to the ground was changed into the flower hyacinth. [u2.html#g27]
despite -- Jealous spite, anger, or rage. Lat. despectus, contempt. "With all thy depite against the land of Israel." -- Ezekiel, xxv. 6. [u2.html#g27]
Telamon -- King of Salamis, brother of Peleus, and father of Ajax. He was one of the Argonauts, and a friend of Hercules, and joined him in several expeditions. [u2.html#g27]
Minos -- The son of Jupiter, and king and law-giver of Crete. For his justice, moderation, and wisdom, he was made judge of the lower regions. He was represented as sitting on a throne, with a sceptre in his hand. He heard the pleadings of the dead, shook the fatal urn, and dealt out their destinies. [u2.html#g28]
Orion -- A great giant hero in Boeotia. He was a beautiful youth, was devoted to hunting, and lived in Crete with Diana. He was so tall that, standing in the middle of the sea, the waters only reached his shoulders. Various accounts are given of his death, some saying it was owing to his love for Aurora, or Diana's for him. When he died he was placed among the stars as a constellation, where he appears as a giant with a girdle, sword, a lion's skin, and a club. [u2.html#g29]
Tityus -- Son of Terra (the earth), or of Zeus, according to some writers. He offended Latona, who called on her children for revenge, and they slew him with their arrows. He was then cast into the lower regions, and he was of such gigantic stature that he covered nine acres. His punishment was as here stated. [u2.html#g30]
Latona -- The mother of Apollo and Diana, by Jupiter. Juno, through jealousy, drove her from heaven and persecuted her, allowing her nowhere to rest. At last she rested on the island of Delos (which see). Here Apollo and Diana were born; but she soon was obliged to fly from Delos, and wander over the world. Those who insulted her were severely punished either by Jupiter or her children. She afterwards became a powerful goddess. [u2.html#g30]
Pytho -- The ancient name of Delphi. The Python was a serpent that lived in the caves of Mt. Parnassus, and which was sent after Latona by Juno to persecute her. It was slain by Apollo, and rotted at Delphi; hence its ancient name Pytho, and the Pythian games which commemorated this victory. It contained a great temple to Apollo and an oracle. [u2.html#g30]
Panopeus -- An ancient town on the Cephissus in Phocis, north of the Gulf of Corinth. [u2.html#g30]
fray -- Frighten, or alarm. [u2.html#g30]
Tantalus -- Son of Jupiter, and father of Pelops and Niobe. He is variously stated as King of Lydia, Argos, or Corinth. Among the various accounts given of his crime is that referred to in the text. Wishing to try the divinity and power of the gods, he killed his son Pelops, and served the flesh in a banquet to them, as they stopped at his house on a journey. The word tantalise is derived from Tantalus. [u2.html#g31]
"About his head, on high trees, clust'ring hung
Pears, apples, granates, olives, ever young
Delicious figs, and many fruit trees, more
Of other burden... The winds from sight
In gloomy vapours, made them vanish quite."
doom -- Judgment, or sentence. A-S. dom. [u2.html#g31]
Sisyphus -- Son of Æolus, and founder of Corinth. He was the most crafty king of the heroic ages, and promoted commerce and navigation. For his wicked life he was terribly punished in the lower world. Various accounts are given of his special offence, the betrayal of the designs of the gods being one. [u2.html#g32]
"There saw I Sisyphus in infinite moan,
With both hands heaving up a massy stone...
To wrest up to a mountain-top his freight;
When prest to rest it there, his nerves quite spent,
Down rushed the deadly quarry....
The sweat came gushing out from every pore,
And on his head a standing mist he wore,
Reeking from thence, as if a cloud of dust
Were raised about it."
Pirithous -- Son of Ixion or Jupiter, and King of the Lapithæ, a people in the mountains of Thessaly. He led them in a celebrated war against the Centaurs, a race half man and half horse, in which the latter were defeated. He became a great friend of Theseus. He attempted to carry away Proserpine from the nether world, in which Theseus assisted. They were caught by Pluto and kept in punishment, but Hercules delivered Theseus. [u2.html#g34]
Scylla and Charybdis -- These were two rocks in the Straits between Italy and Sicily. In a cave in that nearest Italy dwelt Scylla, daughter of Cratæis, a terrible monster, who had twelve feet and six heads, each containing three rows of teeth, and who barked like a dog. Under a great fig-tree on the other and lower rock dwelt Charybdis, who thrice daily swallowed the waters, and thrice threw them up again. Circe is said to have poisoned the waters of the fountain where Scylla, once a beautiful maiden, bathed, thus converting her into a frightful monster. The ancient mariners feared the rock of Scylla, and the whirlpool of Charybdis; hence the proverb when one is in doubt between two difficulties or dangers, "between Scylla and Charybdis." [u3.html#g1]
Sirens -- There were three Sirens, daughters of one of the Muses, who dwelt on the island of Caprea, on the west coast of Italy. The lower part of their bodies was that of a bird. Some suppose this form was given by Circe as a punishment for not preventing the carrying off of Prosperpine by Pluto. They were told they were to perish if anyone escaped being charmed by their enchanting songs; and, disappointed at the escape of Ulysses, they cast themselves into the sea. [u3.html#g1]
the call of any Siren -- [u3.html#g1]
"Whomsoever shall. . . but hear the call
Of any Siren, he will so dispose
Both wife and children, for their sorceries,
That never home turns his affections stream,
Nor they take joy in him, nor he in them."
invitement -- Invitation. The word is not now used. [u3.html#g3]
fen -- Low-lying land covered wholly or partially at times with water. A.-S. fen, marsh, or mud. [u3.html#g3]
Argo -- The Argonauts, "the sailors of the Argo," a ship of fifty oars, so called because built by Argus, son of Phrixus, were the heroes of the first naval expedition, and went to recover the golden fleece. A king of Iolcus in Thessaly, named Pelias, usurped the crown from his brother, Æson, and in order to get rid of his son Jason, persuaded him to go to Colchis for the golden fleece, which was guarded by a dragon, and to avenge on King Æetes the death of their kinsman Phrixus. All the great heroes of the time, numbering fifty, went on the expedition. Jason performed many great labours, like those of Hercules. Assisted by Medea, the daughter of Æetes, who was greatly skilled in magic, he succeeded in obtaining the golden fleece, and after many trials returned to Iolcus with Medea, whom he married. This expedition occurred many years before the Trojan war. [u3.html#g4]
the golden fleece -- Phrixus and Helle were the children of Athamas, King of Thebes. Their stepmother, Ino, afterwards the marine deity, intended to sacrifice them to Jupiter. They escaped, riding through the air on the back of a ram with a golden fleece and wings. On the way Helle fell into the sea and was drowned from whence the Hellespont was named. Arriving at Colchis, Phrixus sacrificed the ram, and Æetes hung the golden fleece on an oak in the grove of Mars, and according to some writers, murdered Phrixus. [u3.html#g4]
dolphin -- A fish of the whale tribe. There are several species, and they average from six to ten feet in length. They swim with great rapidity, bounding out of the sea, and showing great muscular power. They breathe through their lungs, and come to the surface at short intervals. [u3.html#g4]
dog-fish -- The popular name for several species of the smallest of the shark tribe. They are cruel and voracious, and worthless as food. [u3.html#g4]
Cratis, or Cratæis -- Mother of Scylla by Phorcys, a sea deity. [u3.html#g5]
fore wind -- A favourable wind driving the ship by its impulse in its own direction. The adjective fore is largely used in sailor's language: e.g. fore bow, fore cabin, fore sheets, fore shore, &c. [u3.html#g6]
"Come here, thou, worthy," &c. Chapman's Translation of the Odyssey, Book xii., lines 272-283. [u3.html#g7]
heaven drowsy with the harmony -- Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost, iv. 3. [u3.html#g8]
swart -- Swarth. A-S., sweart, of a dark colour. [u3.html#g11]
frayed -- Frightened. These are old words; Lamb was much given to their use, being deeply versed in old English literature. (See fray.) [u3.html#g11]
swoopt -- Swoop is akin to the verb sweep, and means to fall on and catch up while on the wing, as a hawk would a bird. Scylla's long necks would appear to have acted thus. [u3.html#g11]
black night -- Nox, the personification of night, was one of the most ancient and the earliest of created deities. A black sheep was offered to her; also a cock, as the bird that in the darkness proclaims the coming day. She was represented as riding in a chariot covered with a veil bespangled with stars, the constellations as her messengers going before her. [u3.html#g13]
severally -- Separately, or singly, one by one. [u3.html#g13]
Apollo -- Son of Jupiter and Latona, and born at Delos. In the time of Homer he was distinct from Helios or the Sun, but in later times became identified with him. He had many great attributes. He shot the arrows of death; he averted evil; he was the god of prophecy, and spoke through the oracles; the god of song and music; the god of flocks and herds; the god of civil institutions. His worship had more influence on the Greeks than that of any other deity. [u3.html#g15]
prospective penitence -- Future regret, pain or sorrow of heart. [u3.html#g15]
nostril -- Old Eng. nosethril, nose and thril or thyrl, a hole. A-S., nasthyrl. [u3.html#g16]
prodigy -- Something extraordinary, or out of the ordinary course of nature, from which an omen might be drawn. Lat. prodigium. [u3.html#g16]
omen -- A sign by which a future event is foretold. Lat. omen. The signs might be good or bad; if the former, courage and hope were stimulated; if the latter, the evil threatened might be averted by sacrifices or some other means. The belief in omens has existed in all ages and countries, and lingers yet among the peasantry of civilized nations. [u3.html#g16]
cable -- Usually a strong rope to hold a ship at anchor; here the ordinary ship's rope or rigging. Fr. câble; derived from Lat. capere, to take, or lay hold of. [u3.html#g18]
bolt -- Thunder-bolt or streak of lightning. [u3.html#g18]
sea-mew -- Sea-gull. [u3.html#g18]
Ogygia -- A fabulous island, and according to Homer in the centre of the sea; but later writers place it east of the south promontory of Italy in the Ionian Sea. [u3.html#g18]
alder -- Literally "the water-tree," a tree usually growing in moist land. A-S., aler. [u4.html#g1]
balm-gentle -- A fragrant garden herb; the melissa officinalis, or balm-mint. [u4.html#g1]
"A grove grew
In endless spring about her cavern round,
With odorous cypress, pines, and poplars, crown'd..
A vine did all the hollow cave embrace,
Still green, yet still ripe bunches gave it grace.
Four fountains, one against another, pour'd
Their silver streams; and meadows all enflower'd
With sweet balm-gentle, and blue violets hid,
That deck'd the soft breast of each fragrant mead."
Mentor -- A faithful friend of Ulysses, to whom was entrusted the affairs of his home while he was absent at Troy. He had the charge of Telemachus, and when the latter set out on his journey in search of Ulysses, Minerva accompanied him in the form of Mentor acting the part of a wise and prudent guide and counsellor, and to such the name has since come to be applied. Telemachus' visit to Calypso is not from Homer. It is an invention of Fenelon's in Les Aventures de Télémaque. [u4.html#g1]
stipulation -- Bargain, or agreement. Originally a money transaction: from stips, stipis, a gift in small coin. [u4.html#g2]
Twelve months -- Ulysses remained seven years with Calypso in the island of Ogygia. [u4.html#g3]
Jove ordered Mercury -- The ruler of gods and men shows evenhanded justice in the treatment of Ulysses. He assisted Neptune in punishing him for depriving the sea-god's son of his eye, and now he assists Minerva to rescue him from the snares of Calypso. [u4.html#g3]
Pieria -- A mountainous district to the east of Olympus, in the south-east corner of Macedonia. [u4.html#g3]
"He stoop'd Pieria, and thence
Glid through the air, and Neptune's confluence
Kiss'd as he flew, and check'd the waves as light
As any sea-mew in her fishing flight."
mandate -- A command by authority; an official order. Lat. mandatum. [u4.html#g41]
shipwright -- A wright, or maker, of ships. [u4.html#g8]
in four days' time a ship was made -- It was not a ship, but a raft, according to Homer; one man could not do much at building a ship in four days. [u4.html#g8]
Pleinds, or Pleiades -- A group of seven stars, of which six are visible to the naked eye. The word is from plein, to sail, as their rising indicates the time of safe navigation. They were the daughters of Atlas and Pleione, a daughter of Oceanus. They were said to have made away with themselves through grief at the loss of their sisters, the Hyades, or of their father, Atlas. They, as well as the Hyades, were placed among the stars. [u5.html#g1]
Bear -- The Great Bear, also called Charles' Wain or Waggon, and The Plough, a constellation of seven stars near the North Pole of the heavens. In spring this constellation is in the zenith, and maybe said to be following Orion. In northern latitudes, beyond 40 degrees it "keeps above the ocean," for it never dips into the sea. Callisto, an Arcadian nymph, was beloved by Jupiter, who, to conceal this from Juno, changed her into a bear. Juno caused Diana to slay her in the chase, and Jupiter placed her among the stars, as the Great Bear. [u5.html#g1]
Bootes -- That is "the ox-driver;" the imaginary figure of Bootes, supposed to be driving the team; hence "the Waggoner." In latitudes above 40 degrees north this constellation just sets, and does so very slowly. Arcas, son of Callisto, when hunting, was on the point of slaying her when he was prevented by Jupiter, who, some say, placed both among the stars. [u5.html#g1]
"He beheld the Pleiades;
The Bear surnam'd the Wain, that round doth move
About Orion, and keeps still above
The billowy ocean; the slow setting star
Bootes call'd, by some the Waggoner."
Phæacia -- The Phæaces were a fabulous people, in the island of Phæacia, also called Scheria, situated on the western parts of the world. They were a very luxurious people, and the term Phæax was applied to a glutton. The island is by some identified with Coroyra, the modern Corfu, one of the Ionian group. [u5.html#g1]
Æthiopians -- People of Æthiopia, a term indefinitely applied to the country south of Egypt. The worship of Neptune was much observed by the people of Africa. [u5.html#g2]
Solymi -- The people of Lycia, a district in the south of Asia Minor, and so called from the Solyma mountains. They were a brave and warlike race, and take a prominent place in Homer. [u5.html#g2]
trident -- A sceptre or spear, with three prongs, the usual symbol of Neptune's power, made for him by the Cyclops. Lat. tri, and dens, a tooth. [u5.html#g2]
cope -- The arch, or expanse of heaven, akin to cap, a covering. [u5.html#g2]
"All earth took into the sea with clouds, grim Night
Fell tumbling headlong from the cope of light."
sail-yards -- The pieces of timber attached to the masts by which the sails are extended. [u5.html#g4]
Boreas, Notus, Eurus, Zephyrus -- The north, south, east, and west winds, sprung from Astræus, a Titan, and Aurora, the goddess of the morning. [u5.html#g4]
Toss'd it to Notus, Notus gave it pass
To Eurus, Eurus Zephyr made it pursue
The horrid tennis."
tennis -- A game with rackets and ball, in which the ball is being continually held in motion by striking it. Lat. tenere, to hold. [u5.html#g4]
Ino Leucothea -- Daughter of Cadmus, and second wife of Athamas, King of Thebes. (See golden fleece.) Athamas, in a fit of madness, killed one of her sons, and she to escape her husband's fury threw herself and the other into the sea, and they became deities by the pity of Neptune. [u5.html#g5]
Cadmus -- Son of Agenor, King of Phoenicia. He went in search of his sister Europa, who had been carried off by Jupiter. Not finding her, he consulted the oracle at Delphi, and was told to follow a certain cow and sacrifice it, and build a town on the spot. This he did, and reached Boeotia where the cow fell. He sent his men to a well, sacred to Mars, and they were eaten by a dragon. He slew the dragon, and on the advice of Minerva sowed its teeth, out of which sprung armed men. They killed each other, except five, who assisted him to build a city. This was Thebes, and they were the ancestors of its inhabitants. He married Harmonia, and gave her the necklace fatal to those who owned it. [u5.html#g5]
cormorant -- Fr. cormoran, from Lat. corvus marinus, the sea-raven; a web-footed bird, and very gluttonous. It is trained in China to fish for its owner. [u5.html#g5]
buffeted -- Beaten, slapped or cuffed. Old Fr. buffet, a slap in the face. "Then did they spit in His face, and buffeted Him." --Matthew xxvi. 67. [u5.html#g6]
better parent -- His native country was more to him, and held in higher estimation than his parents. [u5.html#g6]
distempers -- Social disorders. [u5.html#g6]
impending -- Overhanging. Lat. impendere, to hang. [u5.html#g7]
main -- The ocean or open sea, as distinguished from a branch of it. [u5.html#g7]
Minerva -- Called by the Greeks Athena, the goddess of wisdom. She sprang from the brain of Jupiter, and was worshipped in all parts of Greece. She was the preserver of the state; the patron of agriculture, inventions, arts, and industries; and the sustainer of law, order, and justice among men. She is usually represented as wearing a helmet, highly ornamented, holding a shield with the fearful head of Medusa on it, her garments being a sleeveless tunic and a cloak. She favoured the Greeks at Troy, and specially protected Ulysses. [u5.html#g8]
Medusa -- One of the Gorgons. Her head was crowned with hissing serpents, and all who looked on it were turned into stone. (See similitude later.) [u5.html#g8]
Calliroe -- The original means "at the mouth of a fair-flowing river," and Chapman probably took the epithet for the name of the river. [u5.html#g9]
rack -- An instrument for stretching or extending anything; an engine of torture on which the body was stretched and tightly roped, and then drawn gradually until the limbs were dislocated. [u5.html#g10]
low trees -- Owing to their exposed condition, trees near a coast are generally low and short in growth. [u5.html#g12]
billet -- A small log or piece of wood. Fr. billot. [u5.html#g12]
Alcinous -- The son of Nausithous, the son of Neptune. Alcinous married Arete, his niece, the daughter of his brother, Rhexenor. They had five sons and one daughter, Nausicaa. He received Ulysses with great kindness, and heard the recital of his adventures, which occupies books vi., xiii. of the Odyssey. Lamb arranges the story in a consecutive form. [u6.html#g1]
vestment -- A garment, dress, or robe; now usually applied to a priest's robes. Lat. vestimentum, from vestire, to clothe. [u6.html#g2]
housewifery -- The business management of a house by the mistress. [u6.html#g4]
council -- Here means consultation; the act of deliberating and advising on important matters. Lat. concilium, from con, and ciere , to move, or call. [u6.html#g4]
"Satan... void of rest
His potentates to council called by night."
Senate -- A body of the most distinguished citizens, who assisted in consulting and deliberating on state affairs. Lat. senatus, from senex, old, or advanced in years. [u6.html#g4]
"She chanced to find
Her father going abroad, to council call'd
By his grave senate."
wardrobe -- A closet, or press, for keeping clothes. From word and robe: ward, from A-S. weard, guard or keeper. [u6.html#g7]
nuptials -- Marriage, the marriage ceremony. Lat. nuptiæ, from nubere, to cover or veil, from the custom of covering the head of the bride with a veil. [u6.html#g8]
Diana -- The Greek Artemis, the goddess of the chase or hunting. She was daughter of Jupiter and Latona, the twin sister of Apollo, and born in Delos. (See Latona). She represented, as a female divinity, the same idea as Apollo, a male divinity, represented. When he became identified with the sun, she became identified with the moon. As a huntress she was represented with bow, quiver, arrows or spear, and attended with dogs. As goddess of the morn, she was covered with a veil and large robe, and above her head a crescent. With Apollo, she sided with the Trojans. [u6.html#g12]
ebb -- The outline or exterior of a body or figure. Lat. lineamentum, from linea, a line. [u6.html#g12]
stature -- Originally an upright posture; the natural height of the human body. Lat. statura. [u6.html#g12]
features -- The fashion, make, or general cast of a face; hence the face or countenance, generally speaking. Old Fr. faiture, from Lat. facere, to make. [u6.html#g12]
Delos -- The smallest of the Cyclades, a group of islands in the Ægean Sea. It was said to have been raised by the trident of Neptune, and floated until fixed to the bottom of the sea by Jupiter with adamantine chains as a resting-place for Latona when pursued by the jealous envy of Juno. Here Apollo and Diana were born, and it became specially sacred to Apollo. It had a great temple raised for his worship, which contained an oracle. It was visited by pilgrims from all quarters; and the island was held so sacred, that all human and animal remains were removed from it, and no births or deaths were allowed to occur there. [u6.html#g14]
cruel habit of calamity -- Owing to his long and repeated sufferings, he easily gave way to his overstrained feelings. [u6.html#g14]
"But for me, A cruel habit of calamity Prepared the strong impression thou hast made."
monster -- (See monster above.) [u6.html#g16]
admired -- Wondered. Lat. admirari , to wonder. [u6.html#g17]
entered the city -- Homer tells that Ulysses, as he entered the city, was met by Minerva in guise of a city maiden, carrying a pitcher. She "about him a darkness cast" to avoid observation, gave him particulars of the king and queen, and advised him how to proceed. [u6.html#g19]
rampires -- Rampart; that which fortifies or defends a place from assault; a mound of earth or fortifying wall. Fr. rempart. The word rampire is now obsolete. [u6.html#g19]
"Rampires so high, and of such strength withal,
It would with wonder any eye appal."
Demodocus -- A celebrated minstrel at the court of King Alcinous. [u7.html#g2]
oracle -- A special spot chosen by a deity as an abode, from which answers might he given to an inquiring worshipper. The answers were generally vague, or of doubtful meaning, and might agree with varied results or events. The inquiry was usually made respecting an enterprise, war, or impending battle. Lat. oraculum, from oro, to speak; os oris, the mouth. [u7.html#g2]
Pytho -- (See Pytho above.). [u7.html#g2]
period -- The end or termination of their wars in Troy. Gr. periodos, a going round, a space of time; from peri, round, and odos, a way; hence, the completion or end of a space of time, or set of events. [u7.html#g2]
strategem -- A plan or scheme in war for deceiving an enemy. [u7.html#g2]
weed -- An article of clothing; generally an outer garment or cloak. A-S. weed. [u7.html#g3]
libation -- Before drinking it was usual to pour some of the wine on the ground as an offering to the gods. Lat. libare, to pour out as an offering. [u7.html#g3]
games of strength -- Athletic training and contests were universally practised in ancient Greece. The games and trials of strength were very varied, but did not include combats with weapons. Four great national athletic festivals were held periodically--the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean games. The first was the most ancient, and the only prize given to the conqueror was a garland of wild olive, which was reckoned as the highest reward in life, the winner being held in great estimation as having brought honour to his country or city. [u7.html#g4]
quoit -- A circular piece of metal or stone, usually ring-shaped, used to pitch at a mark. It was the discus of the ancients. [u7.html#g4]
javelin -- A short spear or lance generally thrown by the hand. Fr. javeline. [u7.html#g4]
pageant -- A spectacle or show got up for the entertainment of a distinguished person. The etymology is doubtful. [u7.html#g5]
Deiphobus -- Son of Priam, King of Troy, and the bravest of the Trojans after Hector. He married Helen after the death of Paris. On the fall of the city his house was among the first that was sacked and burned. Helen is said to have betrayed him to Menelaus, who slew him, and fearfully mangled his body. [u7.html#g5]
conceit -- Thought, idea, or image. Lat. conceptus. [u7.html#g5]
pusillanimous -- Unmanly; wanting in firmness or strength of mind. Lat. pusillanimis; from pusus, diminutive of puer, a boy, and animus, the mind. [u7.html#g7]
policies -- Clever or cunning schemes, stratagems or wiles. Lat. politia, the condition of a state; from Gr. polis, a city. [u7.html#g7]
fame -- (See fame above.). [u7.html#g7]
passport -- (See passport above.). [u7.html#g7]
admiration -- Wonder. (See admired above). [u7.html#g8]
quick-sand -- A mass of sand mixed with water, having little or no consistency, and unable to sustain much weight. Quicksands occur at the mouths of rivers, or on coasts, and are very dangerous. [u7.html#g9]
strife of joys -- Lamb follows Chapman here so closely that the passage is a little obscure. It would be clearer if expressed negatively. "So may all the gods not bless me with the strife of joys (conflicting joys) if I do not acknowledge," &c. [u7.html#g11]
"Nausicaa! Flower of all this empery! (kingdom)
So Juno's husband, that the strife for noise
Makes in the clouds, bless me with strife of joys,
In the desired day that my house shall show,
As I, as I to a goddess there shall vow,
To thy fair hand that did my being give,
Which I'll acknowledge every hour I live."
flecker -- To streak or stripe, to spot. [u7.html#g13]
massy -- Massive. The word is now seldom used. [u7.html#g14]
curveting -- Leaping, bounding, the up-and-down motion of the vessel, like the particular action of a horse called curvet. [u7.html#g14]
nymphs, Naiads -- A nymph was a goddess of the waters, mountains, or woods. Lat. nympha. Gr. nymphe (See daughters... above). [u7.html#g15]
turrets -- Little towers; small erections attached to a building, and rising above it. Lat. turns, a tower. [u7.html#g15]
turned to stone -- Neptune was specially angry with the Phæces, who were descended from him, for helping Ulysses. He said:-- [u7.html#g15]
"No more the gods shall honour me,
Since men despise me, and those men that see
The light in lineage of mine own loved race...
But now this curious built Phæacian ship,
Returning from her convoy, I will strip
Of all her fleeting matter, and to stone
Transform and fix it."
rocky and barren -- Compare:-- [u7.html#g18]
"Rocky 'tis and rough. . . the compass is not great,
The little yet well-filled with wine and wheat,
It feeds a goat and ox well, being still
Water'd with floods, that ever over-fill
With heaven's continual showers; and wooded so,
It makes a spring of all the kinds that grow.
Crete -- The ancient name of Candia. It was early inhabited by a civilised people, and is said to have had one hundred cities. It was famous for the laws made by King Minos. [u7.html#g19]
vouchsafed -- Condescended, graciously granted or permitted. From vouch and safe, to vouch or answer for safety. [u7.html#g20]
saving him unseen -- That is, saving him, she remaining unseen. [u7.html#g20]
counterfeit views -- Apparent, not real; having the appearance or show of wisdom only, but not wisdom itself. [u7.html#g21]
Nerytus -- A mountain in the north of the island of Ithaca. [u7.html#g22]
"Here Mount Neritus shakes his curled tress of shady woods."
suitor -- One who woos or solicits a woman in marriage. [u8.html#g1]
profaning -- Treating with disrespect; undue familiarity; debasing. Lat. pro, before, and fanum, temple; that is, without the temple, unholy. [u8.html#g1]
son's adventures -- (See Mentor above). [u8.html#g1]
divine impression -- The change of form that Minerva was about to make. [u8.html#g4]
scrip -- A small bag, wallet, or satchel. Used several times in the Bible. 1 Sam. xvii. 40, Matthew x, 10, &c. [u8.html#g4]
"And in requital ope his leathern scrip."
MILTON, Comus, 1. 626.
mendicant -- One who begs alms. Lat. mendicare, to beg. [u8.html#g4]
Eumæus -- The faithful swineherd of Ulysses. His father was king of the island of Syrie in the Ægean sea, and he was taken away by Phoenician sailors, and sold as a slave to Laertes, the father of Ulysses. [u8.html#g5]
that majesty -- Ulysses. [u8.html#g7]
"Here I lie
Grieving and mourning for the majesty
That, god-like, wonted to be ruling here."
requite -- Repay; reward. Formed from the prefix re, and quit, to satisfy or pay an obligation, claim, or debt. [u8.html#g8]
your fare.., lean beasts -- That is, the flesh of the lean beasts is the fare of poor herdsmen. The sense is clearer in Chapman:-- [u8.html#g9]
"Eat now, my guest, such lean swine as are meat
For us poor swains."
surfeits -- Excesses in eating and drinking. Old Fr. surfait, from sur, over, and faire, to do. [u8.html#g9]
raiment -- Clothing; shortened from arraiment, from array. [u8.html#g11]
stick to invent -- Not hesitate, or stop, to invent. [u8.html#g11]
"These travellers, for clothes, or for a meal,
At all adventures, any lie will tell.
Nor do they trade for truth. Not any man...
Did ever tell her any news, but lies."
vulture -- A large rapacious bird of prey found in the East. Its beak is large and strong, the head and neck without feathers, but having a collar of long feathers at the root. It detects its prey a long way off. Lat. vultior. [u8.html#g11]
Idomeneus -- Son of Deucalion, and grandson of Minos, King of Crete. He was a suitor to Helen, and led the Cretans with eighty ships against Troy. He was one of the bravest of the heroes, and, according to Homer, returned safely to his country after the fall of the city. [u8.html#g13]
Thesprotia -- A country on the coast of Epirus, west of Greece, nearly opposite the island of Corfu. It was called after the Thesprotians, its most ancient inhabitants. [u8.html#g13]
Dodona -- This oracle was in Thesprotia. It was dedicated to Jupiter, and was one of the most famous in Greece. The answers were given from lofty trees, the rustling of the wind through the branches, and the contact of the brazen vessels hung on them, being interpreted by the priests. [u8.html#g13]
carcase -- A dead body. From Old Eng. carcays, from Old Fr. carquasse, a framework, case, or shell; hence the body itself. [u8.html#g13]
"If your king return not, let your servants throw
My old limbs headlong from some rock most high,
That other poor men may take fear to lie."
mantle -- A loose garment or cloak worn over other garments. Lat. mantellum. [u8.html#g14]
Strong liquor...prefer a speech -- Compare:-- [u8.html#g15]
"Strong wine commands the fool and moves the wise,
Moves and impels him too to sing and dance,
And break in pleasant laughters, and perchance,
Prefer (deliver or address) a speech too that were better in."
ambush -- To lie in wait in order to surprise an enemy. The proper meaning is a hiding in a wood. It is a corruption of an older word embush, to be in a wood. [u8.html#g15]
bitter freezing night -- In eastern countries the nights are often very cold and frosty. This is due to the rapid radiation of heat from the earth and atmosphere into a cloudless sky. The presence of clouds prevents the heat from radiating into space, and thus renders the temperature higher than in their absence. [uu8.html#g17]
bulrush -- (From bull, in the sense of large and rush.) A kind of large rush growing in wet land or water. Chapman has osiers and reeds. [u8.html#g17]
moat -- Here used in a military sense, meaning the deep trench or ditch around the walls of a city or castle, and usually filled with water. The word originally meant a hill, mound, or bank of earth, and is still so applied as an antiquarian term, which in time became transferred to the ditch. [u8.html#g17]
jogged -- Pushed with the elbow or hand; called attention to. [u8.html#g17]
"I jogg'd Ulysses, who lay passing near,
And spake to him, that had a nimble ear."
nimble -- Lively, quick in motion. [u8.html#g19]
servitor -- One who serves. In Oxford University the term is applied to a student partly supported by the college funds, whose duty formerly was to wait at table. Fr. serviteur; from Lat. servire, to serve. [u8.html#g20]
"Their delights are far from being given
To such grave servitors. Youths richly trick'd
In coats or cassocks, locks divinely slick'd,
And looks most rapting, ever have the gift
To taste their crown'd cups, and full trenchers shift."
trencher -- A large wooden plate for table use on which food was formerly cut. Fr. tranchoir, from trancher, to cut or carve. [u8.html#g20]
brags himself -- Boasts himself. [u8.html#g22]
"From ample Crete he boasts himself."
wolfish inclination -- Savage inclination. It is an unusual expression; but Lamb here closely follows Chapman. [u8.html#g24]
"Methinks, a wolfish power
My heart puts on to tear and to devour,
To hear your affirmation."
Arcesius -- Son of Jupiter, father of Laertes, and grandfather of Ulysses. [u8.html#g25]
"Only to the king,
Jove-bred Arcesius did Laertes spring;
Only to old Laertes did descend
Ulysses; only to Ulysses' end
Am I the adjunct, whom he left so young,
That from me to him never comfort sprung."
dogs. . . saw the goddess -- It is popularly understood to this day, that the presence of ghosts or supernatural beings is felt by dogs and other animals. [u8.html#g26]
decrepit -- Broken down with age; literally noiseless, or creeping about quietly like old people. From Lat. decrepitus; from de, not, and crepare, to rattle, to make a noise. [u8.html#g26]
refrain -- Keep back. [u8.html#g26]
admire -- (See admired above.) [u8.html#g27]
substantially -- Actually or really existing in substance, the literal meaning of the word. [u8.html#g27]
"In him his father shone substantially expressed."
MILTON, Paradise Lost, Bk. iii., 1. 140.
law of her free power -- It is enacted that she may exercise such power freely. [u8.html#g27]
"'Tis within the law
Of her free power. Sometimes to show me poor,
Sometimes again thus amply to restore
My youth and ornaments, she still would please.
The gods can arise, and throw men down with ease."
nuptials -- (See nuptials above.) [u8.html#g30]
Dulichium -- The largest of a group of islands at the mouth of the Achelous opposite Ithaca. It was supposed they were originally nymphs, and were thus transformed for neglecting sacrifices to the god of the river. Dulichium at the present day is united to the mainland. [u8.html#g32]
Samos -- An island off the west coast of Asia Minor, separated from it by a narrow strait. It was celebrated in later times for its art, science, and splendid buildings; and its chief city Samos was considered one of the finest in the world. The island is about eight miles in circumference, and very fertile. [u8.html#g32]
Zacynthus -- The modern Zante, an island off the west coast of Greece, one of the Ionian group. It was celebrated in ancient times for its pitch wells, and it still yields bitumen. Homer calls it the "woody Zacynthus." [u8.html#g32]
king of skies -- Jupiter.
"Thinkest thou, if Pallas (Minerva) and the King of Skies
We had to friend, would their sufficiencies
Make strong our part? Or that some other yet
My thoughts must work for."
sufficiency -- Power, capacity, or ability to help. [u8.html#g33]
contumelious -- Insolent; rudely contemptuous, or abusive. [u8.html#g35]
expostulate -- To reason earnestly with. [u8.html#g35]
alms -- Anything given in charity. A-S. almes; Old Eng. almesse. The word was formerly used in the singular number, as Acts iii. 3: "asked an alms;" but it is now generally used in the plural. [u9.html#g1]
humours -- State of mind, temper, or mood. Fr. Lat. humere, to be moist. It originally meant moisture, particularly that of animal bodies, and was applied as a medical term to secretions in the body; hence it once expressed mental depression or melancholy, arising from a disordered condition of the body. (See spleen below.) [u9.html#g1]
Antinous -- A native of Ithaca, the most determined tormentor of Ulysses and the first of the suitors that was killed by him. [u9.html#g3]
vagabond -- One wandering from place to place without a settled home, and usually applied to such a person not having an honest way of living. Lat. vagabundus, from vagari, to stroll or wander about. [u9.html#g3]
travelling Egyptian -- This does not mean a gypsy. They were first known about the fourteenth century. Ulysses, in a speech immediately before, said he had come from Egypt and Cyprus, to which Antinous replied:-- [u9.html#g3]
"Stand off, nor profane
My board so boldly, lest I show thee here
Cyprus and Egypt made more sour than there.
You are a saucy set-faced vagabond."
board -- A table used for setting food on. [u9.html#g4]
"Beggars at your board, I perceive, should get
Scarce salt from your hands, if themselves brought meat."
husband -- A man wedded to a wife. It originally meant the head or master of a house; from A-S. hûs, house, and bonda, a peasant or owner of a farm. Hence, it easily passed to its present meaning. [u9.html#g5]
Irus -- The coward beggar of Ithaca. His real name was Arnæus, but, as the common messenger of the suitors, he was called Irus. [u9.html#g8]
egged -- Urged or edged on. From A-S. ecgan, to sharpen. [u9.html#g9]
Olympic and Pythian games -- Two of the four great national festivals of Greece (see games above), but which did not exist in Homer's time. The Olympic was the most ancient and celebrated, and was held every four years at Olympia, on the banks of the river Alpheus in Elis, and near the Temple of Jupiter. The Pythian games were said to be founded in commemoration of the victory of Apollo over the Pytho, a great serpent that lived in the caves of Mount Parnassus. They were held every third year in a plain near Delphi. [u9.html#g9]
brawny -- Strong, fleshy, muscular. Brawn, the flesh of the hoar, also meant the muscular part of the body, but is not now commonly so used. "His breast so broad and brawny."--Chapman. Old Fr. braon, the fleshy part of the body. [u9.html#g10]
sinew -- That which unites a muscle to a bone. Used here to express muscular development. A-S., sinewe. [u9.html#g10]
Echetus -- A cruel king of Epirus, on the north-west coast of Greece. [u9.html#g10]
spectacle -- Something to gaze at. [u9.html#g10]
coward -- A person without courage. Old Fr. couard. The word is usually explained as having been originally applied to an animal that drops his tail, as a dog; the word couard was also applied as an old hunting term to a hare. [u9.html#g10]
taken the foil -- Taken the defeat. [u9.html#g11]
Eurymachus -- One of the chief suitors to Penelope. [u9.html#g12]
sleek -- Smooth; hence glossy. Old Eng. slik. [u9.html#g12]
glory -- The light surrounding the head of a person of great sanctity; usually figured in pictures by rays of gold, &c. [u9.html#g12]
"Some god doth bear
This man's resemblance, for, thus standing near
The glistering torches, his slick'd head doth throw
Beams round about as these cressets (lamps) do."
task-work -- Work done and paid for by the piece. [u9.html#g13]
glebe land -- Fertile, fruitful. The word is now usually restricted to land yielding an income to a parish church. Lat. gleba, a clod or soil. [u9.html#g13]
bout -- A contest. It is another form of bought, an obsolete word meaning bend or twist. Bout means a turn or round of work, as in mowing or reaping; hence, a contest, a trial, as wrestling, fencing, drinking bouts. [u9.html#g13]
massy -- (See massay above.) [u9.html#g14]
profaned -- (See profaning above). [u9.html#g14]
spleen -- Malice, spite, or envy. The spleen, which is an organ in the stomach, was long considered to be the seat of ill-humour, bad emotions, and melancholy. To express these qualities, the terms "spleen" and "humours" were usually applied to men, and the similar term "vapours" to women. (See humours below.) [u9.html#g14]
armoury -- A place where arms or weapons of war are kept for safety. [u9.html#g16]
omen -- (See omen above.) [u9.html#g16]
housewiveries -- (See housewifery above.) [u9.html#g17]
stress of weather -- Violent winds or tempests. [u9.html#g19]
guest-rites -- The ceremonies or duties observed in entertaining a guest or visitor. [u9.html#g19]
"Whom my home received with guest-rites."
painting -- This word is often applied to a description in words, whether spoken or written. [u9.html#g20]
"Thus many tales Ulysses told the wife,
At most but painting, yet most like the life."
kindly -- According to the kind or nature; natural, the original meaning. "The kindly fruits of the earth." -- Book of Common Prayer. [u9.html#g20]
bridle -- A check or restraint. This and the word curb, the strap and chain which restrain and govern the horse, are used in the sense of governing and restraining the passions or emotions of the mind. [u9.html#g21]
dreamed a dream -- In all ages and countries the idea has prevailed that future events might be foretold by means of dreams. Interpreters of dreams were held in high estimation in early times of, of which Joseph in Egypt is an example. Here Penelope discerning the wisdom of Ulysses, considered his great foresight might be able to forecast the events implied in the dream. [u9.html#g22]
soused -- Here means swooped or fell suddenly, as a bird on its prey. The word is used intransitively here. The transitive verb means to plunge into water or drench; also, to steep in pickle. [u9.html#g22]
trussing -- Applied to the action of a hawk or other bird seizing its prey, and soaring with it into the air. The word in this sense is now obsolete. [u9.html#g22]
"When straight a crook-beak'd eagle from a hill
Stoop'd, and truss'd all their necks, and all did kill."
death of sleep -- Compare: [u9.html#g24]
"But none can live without the death of sleep.
Th" Immortals in our mortal memories keep
Our ends and deaths by sleep, dividing so
Our times spent here, to let us nightly try
That while we live, as much live as we die."
mess -- Food set down for one meal. [ux.html#g1]
gall -- A bitter secretion from the liver in animals; hence anything very bitter, bitterness, rancour. (See spleen,). [ux.html#g1]
Philætius -- A steward of Ulysses, who with Eumæus assisted him in destroying the suitors. [ux.html#g1]
your meat drops blood -- These were signs of impending evil. (See omen.) The passage in Chapman runs as follows:-- [ux.html#g2]
"A night, with which death sees,
Your heads and faces hides beneath your knees;
Shrieks burn about you; your eyes thrust out tears;
These fixed walls, and the main beam that bears
The whole house up, in bloody torrents fall;
The entry full of ghosts stands; full the hail
Of passengers to hell; and under all
The dismal shades; the sun sinks from the poles;
And troubled air pours bane about your souls."
apparition -- A spirit, ghost, or phantom. (See apparition above.) [ux.html#g2]
Theoclymenus -- A soothsayer who returned to Ithaca from Sparta with Telemachus. [ux.html#g3]
imminent -- Threatening, full of danger, impending. Lat. imminere, to project or jut out. [ux.html#g3]
banquet planet -- It was a common belief among the ancients, and continued down to recent times, that the stars exercised great influence over all human affairs. The character and career of men were largely determined by the particular star under which they were born. The star that ruled at the banquet would be said to have an evil aspect, and threaten destruction to the wooers. [ux.html#g6]
Minerva. . .put into the mind of Telemachus -- Minerva put it into the mind of Penelope, and not into that of her son. [ux.html#g7]
"Pallas, the goddess with the sparkling eyes,
Excites Penelope t" object the prize,
The bow and bright steels, to the wooer's strength.
... And thus she spake:
I here propose divine Ulysses' bow
For that great master-piece to which ye vow.
He that can draw it with least show to strive,
And through these twelve axe-heads an arrow drive,
Him will I follow, and this house forego."
comely -- Graceful; handsome. From come, in the sense of become, to be suitable. A-S. cymlic, suitable, fit. We say an article of dress becomes a person, or is becoming. [ux.html#g8]
Colchos -- [Colchis] A country of Asia, bounded on the west by the Euxine or Black Sea, and on the north by the Caucasus. It was famous as the land to which the Argonauts voyaged. (See Circe above.) This speech was delivered by Eurymachus shortly after the contest of Ulysses with Irus. [ux.html#g8]
unctuous -- Greasy, oily. From Lat. unguere, unctum, to anoint. [ux.html#g10]
Liodes. . . Polybus, &c. Suitors to Penelope. [ux.html#g10]
mastery -- Pre-eminence; superiority. [ux.html#g11]
cunning -- Knowing; skilful; experienced. A-S. cunnan, to know. The word is now more generally used in a bad sense, as artful, sly, deceitful. [ux.html#g12]
craft -- Trade; manual work. Like "cunning," it has fallen into a bad sense, as guile, deceit. [ux.html#g12]
"Past doubt he is a man profess'd
In bowyers' (archers') craft, and sees quite through the wood;
Or something, certain, to be understood
There is in this his turning of it still.
A cunning rogue he is at any ill."
plight -- Condition. "Sound plight." --Chapman. Through the rest of this paragraph Lamb follows his author closely. [ux.html#g12]
Phoebus -- Means Bright or Pure. The term was applied by Homer to Apollo, to signify the glory and the beauty of youth, and it remained when Apollo afterwards became identified with the Sun. [ux.html#g14]
deadly arrow . . . lifting a cup. -- The death of Antinous gave rise to the proverb: [ux.html#g14]
"There's many a slip
" Twixt the cup and lip."
The passage in Chapman is:-- [ux.html#g14]
"He said, and off his bitter arrow thrust
Right at Antinous, that struck him just
As he was lifting up the bowl, to show
That 'twixt the cup and lip much ill may grow."
destiny -- That which is fixed or determined; fate; doom. Lat. destinare to fix or determine. The Parcæ or Fates, who presided over human life, were called the Destinies. (See Fates above.) [ux.html#g14]
horrid -- Qualified to strike terror, or excite horror. In the fight with the suitors Eumæus and Philætius also joined; and Minerva, as here described, gave great assistance. [ux.html#g15]
frayed -- (See fray above.) [ux.html#g15]
similitude -- Likeness or shape. Lamb is not quite accurate here, as she appeared thus to the suitors. [ux.html#g15]
"Pallas took in hand
Her snake-fring'd shield, and on that beam took stand
In her true form, where swallow-like she sat.
And then, in this way of the house and that,
The wooers, wounded at the heart with fear,
Fled the encounter."
snake-fringed shield -- The shield of Minerva was represented with the dying head of Medusa, the Gorgon, with the hissing serpents twining round it. Anyone who looked upon the Gorgon was turned into stone. Perseus was given a mirror by Minerva in which he could look with safety, and finding Medusa asleep he slew her, and Minerva fastened her head upon her shield. (See Minerva above.) [ux.html#g15]
prediction of Tiresias -- (See Tiresias and Mentor above.) [ux.html#g15]
asseveration -- Positive statement or assertion. [ux.html#g16]
Menelaus -- Son of Atreus, and husband of Helen. During the siege of Troy he distinguished himself by his bravery in battle. He was one of those hidden in the wooden horse. He was among the first to leave Troy after its destruction, accompanied by Helen. He took eight years to reach his home, where he lived afterwards in great prosperity. (See Introduction and Leda above.) [ux.html#g19]
world given them in fee -- Usually termed in fee simple; which means possession to a person and his heirs for ever. [ux.html#g20]